1. Small や、ゆ、よ
Please take a look at the charts below.
These are the 3rd chart for both Hiragana and Katakana. There is a feature in Japanese language which is called Youon where we combine the ending -i characters with ya, yu and yo.
Here, you need to look properly at the size of ya, yu and yo where those are written smaller than usual version.
りゅ(dragon) – is pronounce as ‘ryu’
りゆう(reason) – is pronounce as ‘riyuu’
From the example, both words aren’t pronounce similarly and have different meaning . Usual version of ‘ya’ will be pronounced as a separate character from ‘ri’ but for small ‘ya’, we will pronounce it as ‘ryu’.
2. Double consonant
Have you ever see some words are written like this:
あさって(asatte) – day after tomorrow
きって(kitte) – stamp
ざっし(zasshi) – magazine
If you notice, that we add a small つ between the double consonant. However, ‘tsu’ will no be pronounced in this case.
This is called Sokuon and only happen to consonant ‘tt’, ‘kk’ and ‘ss’.